An all new animatronic outdoor Ice Age experience!
Ice Age: The Lost Kingdom is a spectacular outdoor Ice Age experience aimed at family audiences with over 40 impressive installations of animated life-sized beasts. Visitors will learn about and come face to face with huge Ice Age beasts including the Woolly Mammoth, Smilodon (Sabre Toothed Tiger), Cave Lion, Woolly Rhinoceros, Mastodon (giant elephants), Megatherium (Giant Sloth), Short Faced Bear, Giant Beaver and many more……
These beasts from 70,000 years ago are bought to life through animatronics, which include moving arms, tails swaying side-to-side, heads moving up and down, eyes blinking and jaws opening wide with roaring sound effects. Making for a truly awesome educational and entertaining Ice Age experience!
This is the first outdoor Ice Age experience of its kind to tour across the UK and a truly entertaining and educational experience for families. Visitors will explore gardens and parklands and uncover epic life-sized beasts along their walkthrough journey with scenery and props recreating the Ice Age period. Along the route will be a mini education cinema, VR machines, street food and drink stalls, fossil excavation pit and a merchandise shop for visitors to take home a souvenir of their experience.
SIZE 2-3m (6-10ft)
WEIGHT 2,500kg (5,500lbs)
AGE/TIME Miocene (9 – 6 mya)
Related to the modern elephant and a close relative of the mammoth, Amebelodon ranged the Great Plains and Gulf Coast regions of North America. The most distinctive characteristic of Amebelodon was its relatively long, slender and flattened lower tusks which were most likely to have been used as shovels when digging up plants, as well as scraping bark from trees. Much like modern elephants, it used a long flexible trunk in feeding, drinking and manipulating objects.
SIZE 2.2m long, 1.8m high
AGE/TIME late Miocene
With relatively short hind legs with hooves and long front legs with claws, Anisodon Grande was well adapted to life in Europe, using its clawed forepaws to reach high branches and to digs up roots and tubers. These claws were also used to defend against predators such as bear dogs and sabre-toothed cats.
SIZE 1.5m, 3.4m on their hind legs
AGE/TIME Pleistocene (1.8 mya – 11,000 years ago)
The largest mammalian land carnivore to ever live in North America, the short-faced bear preyed on wild horses and antelopes. It chased down its prey, with its long hind legs enabling it to reach a top speed of 30-40mph. Its derives from the shape of their skulls, which appear to have disproportionately short snouts compared to other bears. Climate change during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition caused the giant short faced bear’s extinction.
SIZE 2.5 (8.2ft)
WEIGHT 2000-3200kg (4400-7100 lb)
AGE/TIME Pleistocene (200,000 – 20,000 years ago)
Competing with the giant African buffalo (Pelorovis) for the title for the largest bovid to have ever existed, Bison latifrons is much larger than the existing species of bison: The American and European bison. Ranging North America it’s large, thick horns are believed to be a deterrent against the other large carnivorous megafauna which coexisted, such as the Sabre-toothed cat and short-faced bear. They were also believed to be used to establish dominance among males for the right to mate.
SIZE 2.5m (8.2ft)
WEIGHT 250kg (550lbs)
AGE/TIME Middle Miocene (approx. 15 mya)
A species of flightless bird which ranged Australia, Bullockornis Planei’s very large beak was suited to shearing, leading to speculation that this may have been a carnivorous bird. This speculation, combined with its enormous size, have led to Bullockornis Planei’s colourful nicknames: ‘Demon-Duck of Doom’ and ‘Thunderduck’. However, most researchers agree that Bullockornis Planei was herbivorous, not carnivorous.
SIZE height: 98cm, 180cm body length
WEIGHT 60-68kg (132-150lbs)
AGE/TIME Late Pleistocene – early Holocene (125,000-9,000 years ago)
One of the most famous prehistoric carnivores in the Americas and popularised by Game of Thrones, the Dire Wolf was a pack hunter, preying on horses, ground sloths, mastodons, bison and camels. Meaning ‘fearsome dog’, canis diris was about the same size as the largest modern grey wolves but with a comparatively larger head and more powerful bite force. The cause of extinction of the dire wolf has been attributed to the extinction of the megaherbivores upon which they preyed, which in turn has been attributed to the impact of climate change and overhunting by newly arriving human hunters.
SIZE 1.9-2.2m (6.2-7.2ft)
WEIGHT 90-125kg (198-276lb)
AGE/TIME Pleistocene (3 mya – 10,000 years ago)
Existing in North America, Castoroides, or the Giant Beaver, superficially resembled the modern-day beaver. The incisors of the Giant Beaver were bigger, broader (growing up to 15cm long) but not as efficient at cutting wood as the modern-day beaver. As a result, the giant beaver likely did not construct dams and fed instead on aquatic plants. The Giant Beaver had a proportionally smaller brain than the modern-day beaver; its less complex thought patterns and social and environmental interactions not permitting dam building. It likely went extinct due to ecological restructuring resulting from the end of the Pleistocene epoch.
SIZE 3-3.8m (9.8-12.5ft) in length
WEIGHT 1800-2700kg (4000-600lbs)
AGE/TIME Pliocene and Pleistocene (3.7 mya – 10,000 years ago)
The Woolly Rhinoceros was well adapted for its environment. It’s stocky limbs and thick woolly pelage made it well suited to the steppe-tundra environments prevalent across Europe and Northern Asia during Pleistocene glaciation periods. Subsisting on a diet of wildflowers and grasses, the woolly rhino is one of the largest rhinos to have ever lived and coexisted with the Neanderthals and modern Sapiens during the last ice age. Climate change at the end of the last ice age caused the Woolly Rhino’s extinction.
SIZE 4m (12ft) long
AGE/TIME Late Oligocene to Early Miocene (23 – 5 mya)
Daeodon, meaning ‘dreadful tooth’, also known by the Dinohyus (‘terrible pig’), was a species of pig which ranged North America. These names derive from Daeodon’s powerful jaws which could crush the bones of animals on which it scavenged. An interesting difference from modern day pigs is Daeodon’s sideways facing nostrils. It’s speculated that this is an adaptation to allow the pig to sample as much air as possible, allowing it to locate food more easily by homing in on the scents of a rotting carcass.
SIZE 3m (9.8ft) long, 2m (6.6ft) tall
WEIGHT 2,7900kg (6,150lb)
AGE/TIME Pleistocene (1.6 mya – 46,000 years ago)
The largest known marsupial to have ever existed, the Diprotodon, meaning ‘two forward teeth’, ranged across mainland Australia. The Diprotodon inhabited forests, woodlands and grasslands, staying close of water and surviving on a diet of leaves, shrubs and grasses. The extinction of this species is likely due hunting and destruction of habitat after the arrival of humans in Australia 50,000 years ago, combined with the effects of a changing climate
SIZE 1.5m (4.9ft), overall 4m (13ft) length
WEIGHT 1.9-2.4 tonnes
Doedicurus clavicaudatus was a prehistoric herbivorous glyptodont which ranged the woodlands and grasslands of South America. The largest known glyptodont, Doedicurus clavicaudatus is related to the modern-day armadillo. The most prominent feature is the spiked ‘pestle tail’ which was mostly likely used as a weapon in intraspecies conflict, rather than in defence against predators such as the sabre-toothed cat. Its extinction was likely caused by climate change and human hunting.
SIZE 4.5m (15ft)
WEIGHT 3.6-2.5 tonnes
AGE/TIME Late Pliocene to Pleistocene (2.6 mya – 10,000 years ago)
Also known as the Siberian Unicorn, elasmotherium (‘Thin Plate Beast’) was a genus of herbivorous rhinoceros which ranged throughout central Asia and Western Eurasia. The best-known species, Elasmotherium sibiricum, was the size of a mammoth and used its large thick horn for a variety of functions, such as defence, attracting mates and driving away competitors. Feeding on grass and plant roots, it used its horn to dig in the snow to unearth its foodstuff. Human hunting, in conjunction with climate change, caused elasmotherium’s extinction.
SIZE 1.5m (4.9ft), overall 3m (10ft) length
WEIGHT 1 tonne
AGE/TIME Late Pliocene until end of Pleistocene (2.5 mya – 11,000 years ago)
Similar in size to a Volkswagen beetle, Glyptodon were large and heavily armoured mammals, related to the modern-day armadillo. Glyptodon ranged South America, grazing grasses and leaves near water sources, such as lakes or rivers. The glyptodon had a powerful muscular tail which it used a weapon to defend against predation and in intraspecific fighting. There exists very little evidence of predation on glyptodon and extinction was likely a combination of climatic change and human hunting.
SIZE 2.5–3 m (8–10 ft)
WEIGHT Up to 5 tonnes
AGE/TIME Pleistocene (2 mya – 9,000 years ago)
Mammoths were large, herbivorous mammals which ranged Africa, Europe and North America. Closely related to modern day Indian elephants, they can be distinguished from elephants by their highly ridged molars, typically larger size and well-developed body hair. Their long, upwards curving tusks could be up to 4m long and were used in mating rituals, protection and digging in the snow for food. They are distinguished from mastodons by their longer tusks, wider head, sloping back, flat chewing teeth and two finger-like projections on their tusks. Human hunting and climate change drove mammoths into extinction.
SIZE 3m (10ft) long
WEIGHT 1 tonne
AGE/TIME Pleistocene (1.8 mya – 11,700 years ago)
Ranging across South America, Marcrauchenia patachonica had a long neck like a llama, three toed feet like a rhino and a trunk similar to a tapir. This combination of traits has made it difficult for scientists to classify this species. Similar in size to an average horse, Marcrauchenia patachonica had a long, narrow skull, also similar to a horse’s. It’s thought that a combination of human hunting and influx of large carnivores into its range was the cause of this species’ extinction.
SIZE 2.5–3 m (8–10 ft)
AGE/TIME Oligocene to Pleistocene (4 mya – 10,000 years ago)
Mastodons were large, herbivorous mammals which ranged mostly in the forests of the eastern United States. Having evolved in the Oligocene epoch, they share common ancestors with mammoths and elephants. Their characteristic tusks were typically about 2.5m long and they used their cone-shaped teeth to eat leaves off the tops of trees. It’s thought that a combination of human hunting, disease and climate change caused the mastodons’ extinction.
SIZE 7m (23ft)
WEIGHT 600-620kg (1320-1370 lb)
AGE/TIME Pleistocene (1.5 mya – 50,000 years ago)
Megalania was a gigantic monitor lizard far larger than even modern-day saltwater crocodiles. Like the Komodo dragon, it’s razor sharp teeth were coated in venom and would stalk the deserts of Australia, preying on anything it could catch. Although it was driven to extinction as a result of human expansion into Australia many millennia ago, Megalania still exists in Aboriginal folklore, as is its fearsome reputation.
SIZE 2.1m (6.9ft)
WEIGHT 540-600kg (1190-1323lb)
AGE/TIME Pleistocene (400,000 – 7,700 years ago)
Also called the giant deer or Irish giant deer, megaloceros giganteus was one of the largest deer to have ever lived. It ranged across Eurasia, from Ireland to Siberia to China. The most recent remains found in Siberia was carbon dated to about 7,700 years ago. Despite its name, the Irish elk was not exclusive to Ireland, although most skeletons were found in bogs in Ireland, and is not closely related to any living species of elk. The Irish elk was driven to extinction by hunting and poor adaption to climate change.
SIZE 1.8m (5.9ft) height, 2.5-2.7m (8.2-8.9ft) length
WEIGHT 1000-2000kg (2,200-4,400 lbs)
AGE/TIME Miocene-Pleistocene epochs
Megalochelys atlas was a giant species of turtle which ranged from western India and Pakistan, possibly as far west as southern or eastern Europe, and as far east as Timor in Indonesia. Like the modern Galapagos tortoise, four elephant-like feet supported its huge weight and subsisted on a vegetarian diet. Megalochelys atlas is currently the largest known land turtle and only a few species of marine turtles are larger.
SIZE 6m (20ft)
WEIGHT 4 tonnes
AGE/TIME Early Pliocene through the end of Pleistocene (5 mya – 10,000 years ago)
One of the largest mammals to walk the earth, Megatherium was an herbivorous, elephant-sized ground sloth which lived in South America, and possibly parts of North America. The megatherium walked mostly on its hind legs. Its long claws prevented the megatherium from lying its feet flat on the ground and, instead, walked on the sides of its feet. Rising on its powerful hind legs and using its tail to help support its weight, the megatherium would pull down branches with its curved claws to access leaves. The expansion of the human population and gradual loss of suitable habitat towards the Holocene caused this species’ extinction.
SIZE 170cm long, 85cm tall
WEIGHT 70kg (150lb)
AGE/TIME Pleistocene (2.6 mya – 12,000 years ago)
Despite its name, the American Cheetah is more closely related to modern day pumas and cougars than cheetahs. A result of convergent evolution, its lithe frame and long legs enabled the American Cheetah to reach top speeds of over 50 mph in a flat out chase for its prey, which included the deer and prehistoric wild horses which roamed the North American plains. Miracinonyx went extinct as a result of climate change that accompanied the end of the Pleistocene.
SIZE 1.6-2.5m (5-8ft)
AGE/TIME Pleistocene (340,000 – 11000 years ago)
Strongly resembling modern day lions but considerably larger, the North American lion was once believed to be the largest subspecies of lion. At 1.3m tall at the shoulder, it was smaller than its contemporary competitor for prey, the giant short faced bear, and not as heavily built as the sabre-tooth cat. Its primary prey would have been herbivores such as wild horse or antelope. Climate change would be the ultimate cause for this species’ extinction.
SIZE 4.8m (15.7 ft) high and 7.4m (24.3ft) long
WEIGHT 15-20 tonnes
AGE/TIME Oligocene (34-23 mya)
One of the largest known land mammals to have ever existed, Paraceratherium’s large and robust limbs supported its massive weight. Their shortened, fused and compressed lower limb, hand and foot bones provides evidence of convergent evolution with other species of animals with graviportal (heavy and large) builds, such as elephants or sauropod dinosaurs. Due to a lack of complete specimens, the exact size of Paraceratherium has been difficult to determine. Their extinction is thought to be the result of climate change, low reproductive rate and competition from gomphothere, a species invasive to Paraceratherium’s Eurasian range.
SIZE 3m (9.8ft)
WEIGHT 1,250kg (2,760lbs)
AGE/TIME Pliocene to Early Holocene (5 mya – 8000 years ago)
Sivatherium, meaning ‘Shiva’s beast’ was a genus of giraffid which ranged throughout Africa to the Indian subcontinent. Sivatherium giganteum, is the largest known giraffid and possibly the largest known ruminant of all time by weight. Powerful neck muscles lifted Sivatherium’s large heavy skull and, in males, a set of large antler-like horns.
SIZE 1.7–1.8 m (5.6–5.9 ft)
WEIGHT 200- 400 kg (510-880 lb)
AGE/TIME Pleistocene (2.5 mya – 10,000 years ago)
Smilodon populator, commonly known as the sabre-toothed cat was a ferocious apex predator in the prehistoric American plains, preying on bison, deer and horses. Similar in size to a modern-day tiger, it was robustly built, with broad limbs and canines measuring 17-25cm long. Withoutnatural predators, climate change and human activity are thought to be the most likely cause of extinction. Although commonly referred to as the ‘Sabre-tooth tiger’, smilodon populator is not closely related to tigers and belongs to the machairodontinae subfamily.
SIZE 3m (10ft) length
WEIGHT 250kg (550lbs)
AGE/TIME Pliocene-Pleistocene (5 mya – 11,700 years ago)
Sthenurus, meaning ‘strong tail’, was a genus of kangaroo which ranged across Australia. About twice the size of modern-day kangaroos and three times the body mass, it’s possible that Sthenurus did not hop but rather walked in a bipedal fashion similar to hominids. Evidence suggests that hunting by Aboriginals caused the extinction of Sthenurus, although other studies suggest that the extinction of Sthenurus was already under way before human contact.
SIZE Wingspan of 3.5-3.8m (11-12ft), 75cm tall, 17.5 sq meter wing area
WEIGHT 15kg (33lb)
AGE/TIME Pleistocene (25 mya – 10,000 years ago)
Living in a similar way to modern condors, Teratornis merriami would prey on small mammals, capable of swallowing prey up to the size of a small rabbit whole. Carrion would form a large part of Teratornis merriami’s diet, much like condors and vultures. Large numbers are found preserved in the La Brea Tar Pits, likely becoming stuck and dying in the sticky asphalt while attempting to feed on dead Pleistocene megafauna which became also stuck while crossing the tar pits. Climate change at the end of the Pleistocene resulted in the extinction of Teratornis merriami.
SIZE 1.2m (4ft)
WEIGHT 150kg (330lb)
AGE/TIME Pliocene (9 – 3 mya)
Thylacosmilus atrox was a sabre-toothed metatherian (mammals closely related to marsupials) which ranged across South America. It’s characteristic sabre-teeth, which are shared with other predators as a result of convergent evolution, were key to it’s hunting technique. With a relatively weak bite force, Thylacosmilus atrox used instead its powerful neck muscles to drive deep bites into prey after immobilising them. It’s thought that the extinction of Thylacosmilus atrox may have been due to competition for prey from the sabre-toothed cat.
SIZE 2.5m (8.2ft)
AGE/TIME Pliocene (4.9 – 1.8 mya)
Titanis walleri was a carnivorous bird which preyed on small mammals in North and South America. Its wings were small and could not be used for flight. Titanis walleri is closely related to the South American Phorusrhacos and Devincenzia, but differs by having a shorter and thicker neck, as well as a more heavily built body structure.
SIZE 3.5m (11.5ft) long and 2.8m (9.5t) long
WEIGHT 2 tonnes
AGE/TIME Pleistocene (10.3mya – 30,000 years ago)
Titanotylopus, was a large, early camelid which ranged across North America. Also known as the Giant Camel, it also possessed a large hump to store fat, much like modern day camels. It can be distinguished from contemporaneous camelids by its large upper canines and other dental characteristics.
SIZE 4m (13 ft) long and 1.7m (5.6ft) high
WEIGHT 2 tonnes
AGE/TIME Eocene (45-40 mya)
Uintatherium’s large size would’ve made a fully grown adult virtually immune to predation. One of the most striking characteristics were its three pairs of knobbly horns, which is speculated to have been used to attract females during mating rituals. The very sudden extinction of Uintatherium from its range of North America and China is thought to be a result of competition from newly arriving species of brontotheres for food access.